Cowpea Farming [A Complete Guide]

Cowpea cultivation stands out as one of the most preferred agricultural activities in India. Cowpea, which is one of the most important nutrients of the legumes class, is a product that is widely used as animal food.

What is Cowpea?

Black-eyed cowpea is one of the legume-type plants which are formally rich in dried beans and are rich in both vitamin C and protein. It stands out as a product with many different names. Some of these names are called Vignasinensiş, Cowpea, or belly, black or black eye.


Cowpea stands out as one of the richest vitamin and mineral-containing products of the legume class. The content of the cowpea used as animal food is as follows;

  • Protein
  • Calcium
  • Potassium
  • Vitamin A and Vitamin C
  • Sodium
  • Fiber
  • Carbohydrate
  • Nitrogen
  • Starch

It is also known as a type of legume, which is extremely useful and full of vitamins for human life.

Climatic conditions

Cowpea, especially in agriculture is one of the legumes extensively in Turkey across the Aegean and Mediterranean regions. If you need to mention briefly, we can say that HOT is among the products of IKLIM.

As mentioned above, cowpea is a product that grows more efficiently in hot climates. Especially in the process of development, the temperature needs more.

It is very difficult to grow in Central Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia because it is sensitive to the frost problem in spring and autumn.

  • During the germination phase of the seeds, a soil temperature of about 10 ° C and air temperature of about 12 ° C is required.
  • During the development process, air temperature is up to 30 ° C.
  • The difference between day and night temperatures should be between 5 ° C and 10 ° C.


Cowpea is a kind of plant looking for a warm environment as soil temperature, as you can see from the climatic conditions above. However, it is not a highly selective plant species as a soil type. It can grow in many different soil types including sandy and clay soils. However, according to the type of cowpea the soil requirement is as follows;

  1. Early harvesting light soils for the production of fresh cowpea,
  2. Heavy grains for dry grain and slightly more mature cowpea,
  3. The pH value in the soil to be produced is in the range of 5.5 to 6.5,
  4. There is a soil requirement.

Soil Preparation and Planting

First of all, it is very important to clean the soil in which we will plant the cowpea. Of course, the structure of the soil is also important to not disturb. What you should know about the soil preparation stages are as follows;

  1. In the preparation phase, especially in the autumn time, the soil should be deeply soaked.
  2. The soil should not become overly low. The most important reason for this is that air and water flow is carried out in a healthy way.
  3. Cowpea seeds are generally planted in the spring season. This is why the field should be cultivated several times at a depth of 10 – 15 CM before sowing. Thanks to this process, the seed bed is ready to be healthy.
  4. After the last frost of the spring season, it is useful to process the soil once more. Then seed seeds are sown.
  5. Before planting the seed, it is healthy to pay particular attention to the moisture in the soil.
  6. It is extremely healthy between each seed bed to be 60 CM in order and 15 CM in order.
  7. Be sure to place the cowpea seeds in the deepest 5 CM of the soil.


If you are producing cowpea, you need to pay attention to IRRIGATION. Irrigation with the furrow method provides the best benefit in this sense. Taking into account the climatic conditions in which the agriculture is made, irrigation is done within a period of 8 days to 10 days.

Related to the fertilization phase, what you need to know is different. Cowpea, especially after the planting process needs phosphorus. The contribution of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is very important in the fertilizer. 10 KG nitrogen, 10 KG phosphorus and 8 KG potassium fertilizer supplement is very important when it is hit to the account.


The harvesting period of the cowpea begins especially when it is dry and fresh. In this period, the cowpea begins to produce milk and clearly show that it is ready for harvest.

It is suitable for harvesting within 5 to 9 weeks. It is possible to harvest 2 times within a 1 week period. Be careful not to spend the harvest time. This has a significant negative effect on the quality of the product.

For the production of dry cowpea we do not harvest the product at harvest time and leave it on the pods. We wait until we see a purple color during the transition from green to yellow. This process means drying. The pods will be the best to harvest without going through the cracking phase.

Main benefits of cowpea

With its rich content of vitamins and minerals, cowpea is an extremely useful product for human health. The main benefits recognized in the medical world can be listed as follows;

  1. It helps to lower the values ​​by fighting the cholesterol problem.
  2. It keeps the sugar balance in the body and prevents the disease.
  3. As it is a store of vitamin A and vitamin C, it is supportive of the fight against cancer.
  4. It is among the most preferred legumes as a protein source.
  5. Regulates the activities of the digestive system.
  6. Eliminates intestinal problems and helps to lose weight fast, healthy.
  7. It is one of the most ideal supplements in people with iron deficiency.
  8. Zinc gives B9 and potassium richness.